Saintila, Jacksaint; VillacÃs, Johana Elizabeth
Introduction and objective: growth retardation is a manifestation of an affected nutritional status and, in school children, constitutes a public health problem in the world. The relationship between anthropometric nutritional status, socioeconomic status and academic performance in schoolchildren was determined.
Materials and methods: A descriptive-correlational study was carried out, a sample 304 schoolchildren aged 6 to 12 years was considered. The Socioeconomic Level Stratification Survey was used to determine the socioeconomic level. Additionally, the Body Mass Index (BMI) and Size / Age were calculated. The bulletins of the school grades for the 2018 academic year were requested to determine the academic performance according to the classification scales established by the Ministry of Education of Ecuador.
Results: the results reveal that schoolchildren have a BMI and Size / Age within the normal range. A statistically significant correlation was found between the socioeconomic level of the parents and the BMI (p = 0.007; rho = 0.154). Also, BMI and academic performance were significantly correlated (p =0.009; rho = -0.149). In addition, Size / Age was correlated with socioeconomic status (p = 0.000; rho = -0.155) and academic performance (p = 0.004; rho = -0.151), respectively. Finally, a correlation was found between socioeconomic status and academic performance (p = 0.005; rho = 0.161).
Conclusion: This study adds to the available evidence linking BMI, Size / Age, socioeconomic level with academic performance, emphasizing the consequences attributed to growth retardation and low socioeconomic levels in growth, physical, cognitive and intellectual development in early childhood.