PÃ©rez RamÃrez, Brenda Yadira1; Jasso Molina, JosÃ© Antonio2; LÃ³pez Ortiz, MarÃa Montserrat1
Introduction: There is little evidence regarding the nutritional status of patients with mental disorders (psychiatric illness). It is known that they are at higher risk of dying from cardiovascular disease and pose a higher likelihood of having diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and being overweight.
Objective: Assess, in a hospital unit, the nutritional status of patients according to their psychiatric disorder.
Material and Methods: An observational, comparative, and cross-sectional study was performed on 76 patients hospitalized with mental disorders (psychiatric illness). Anthropometric (weight, height, BMI, waist circumference), biochemical (seric albumin and blood glucose), clinical (administered drugs and gastrointestinal function), and dietary (energy and nutrient consumption) indicators were evaluated. Comparisons were made through Chi-square test, Student test and one-way ANOVA.
Results: Patients, men and women are overweight, with a tendency of weight gain during hospitalization, particularly higher in the men. BMI did not differ in the comparison of mental disorders (psychiatric illness) (p = 0.13). Patients showed fasting glucose (71.9 ± 14.5 mg / dl) at levels close to the lower limit and albumin levels (3.0 ± 1.6 g / dL) below the minimum recommended range. The use of typical antipsychotics such as risperidone (30%), olanzapine (30%) and quetiapine (28%), predominated. Constipation was identified in 31.6% of patients. We observed that patients ingest 88.2% of the diet provided; with a consumption of 2032.7 ± 350.9 kcal / day (range 1108.2 - 2815.6 kcal / day). The average daily nutrient intake was 104 g of protein, 45.8 g of lipids, and 297.5 g of carbohydrates.
Discussion: Patients with mental disorders (psychiatric illness) showed a state of malnutrition evidenced by overweight with risk of escalating to obesity during hospitalization; and malnutrition determined by the levels of albumin in their blood. It is known that pharmacological treatments used for these diseases induce an increase in appetite and decrease satiety, with consequent weight gain. The results are consistent with those reported on the increased risk of dying from cardiovascular disease displayed in these patients compared with the rest of the population.
Conclusion: Patients with psychiatric illness are overweight; albumin values indicate malnutrition and energy and nutrient consumption that exceed your recommended daily requirement. No statistically significant differences in the nutritional status of patients were identified according to their mental disorders (psychiatric illness).