MartÃnez Ãlvarez, J. R.1,3; Villarino MarÃn, A.1,2; GarcÃa AlcÃ³n, R. M.3; Calle PurÃ³n, M. E.1; MarrodÃ¡n Serrano, M. D.2,3
The statistical data show, in recent years, a gradual deterioration of the quality of the diet consumed in all Europe as well as a insufficient practice of physical activity. In this way, in the past three decades, there has been a strong increase of overweight and obesity in the entire population of the European Union. Obesity and overweight present during childhood and adolescence can be a cause of hypertension and vascular complications in later life stages. Certainly, in the researches of epidemiological nature it is customary to use polls that reflected the height and weight. However, the inaccuracy of the self-reported data may skew the result of nutritional assessment. In Spain there are few studies that have made a physical measurement of the height and weight to estimate the magnitude of the problem. Studies relating to the estimate of overweight and obesity in children and young people in Spain are relatively recent and not very large in number. To review the information provided, we have compiled the results of five studies. We found a big difference between the data offered between different studies. Thus, with regard to the amount of obesity and overweight (that we call excess weight) the largest numbers are derived from the Aladino study (45.2% of the sampled population) compared to 26.3% (lowest figure) offered by the ENKID study of 2005. When we compared the results obtained in contemporary studies, are also fairly important differences: a 38.28% difference between the Aladino study (45.2%) and those of the national health survey of 2012 (27.9%). According to the data presented in this review, we reiterate the importance of establishing an agreement to carry out rigorous studies, with a clearly and well established methodology that can be replicated. Being the prevention of obesity a key aspect of the promotion of health, it is imperative award the necessary resources to carry out studies that are based on direct anthropometric measurements carried out by properly trained people.