Da Silva Lima, Girlane1; Oliveira Ferreira Porto, Kelly Anne1; Marinho de Souza, Thays Kallyne2; Rampeloti Almeida, Ana Maria2; Cavalcante GalvÃ£o, Georgia Karoline2; Sirlaide Lima da Silva, Jordana2; Silva Viana, Marcia Gabrielle2; Andrade Figueiredo, Mariana3
Introduction: alcohol consumption has increased over the years in the world and can be harmful to health. If alcoholic beverages are consumed in excess, it can promote dependence, imbalance and nutritional deficiencies.
Objective: To evaluate the nutritional status and food consumption of alcoholics in rehabilitation, in order to identify possible interventions relevant to a multidisciplinary group and to emphasize the importance of establishing adequate nutrition for alcoholics in rehabilitation to promote the health of individuals.
Methods: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study, in an alcoholic rehabilitation center, recognized as Alcoholics Anonymous (AA), located in Caruaru city, Pernambuco state. The study was conducted with 43 alcoholics in rehabilitation, aged above 20 years and below 60 years of both sexes. Socioeconomic data and the nutritional state of individuals were analysed by using a socioeconomic and nutritional evaluation form. The dietary consumption of participants was analyzed by the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) adapted.
Results: Among individuals, there was a high frequency of alcoholism rehabilitation in male population (88.4%). The mean body mass index (BMI) of the studied population was 26.9 (+/- 5.1) kg/m²; according to this parameter, 60% of women exhibited eutrophic nutritional status and 40% were obese. The average of waist circumference (WC) in the female population was 91 (+/- 5.4) cm. Among the male participants, using BMI, 28.9% were eutrophic, 34.2% overweight and 36.7% obese. The average of WC in male individuals was 97.3 (+/- 8.9) cm. Thus, in this study, 32.5% of the individuals presented an eutrophic nutritional status and 67.4% of participants were overweight or obese. Food consumption among alcoholics in rehabilitation was considered inadequate in relation to the consumption of several foods, as rare fish consumption, habitual consumption of bread and no habitual consumption, however weekly (ranging from 1 to 2 or 3 times a week), of embedded, cookies, cakes and pasta, as well as sweets/candy, chocolate and soft drinks. The consumption of fruit and vegetables were also considered unusual.
Discussion: Historically, men have always been more related to alcohol consumption. The average age of respondents highlights the high frequency of young adults between individuals in rehabilitation for alcohol abuse. There was a high percentage of individuals with low financial income and education. In economic classes considered disadvantaged and in population groups having lower education in Brazil, the incidence of alcoholism is higher, confirming statement of several authors that psychological, social and economic aspects have the potential to promote the abuse of alcohol and its dependence. Food consumption considered inappropriate in relation to consumption of various food groups, among alcoholics in rehabilitation, may be res - ponsible for the high rates of overweight and obesity observed among individuals.
Conclusion: In the alcoholic rehabilitation period, it is essential monitoring and guidance the individuals by nutrition professionals to achieve the treatment objectives. In addition, a multi-professional support is also needed. This fact confirms the importance of nutrition in reabilitatório process and the need of a multidisciplinary performance for promoting health and well being of individuals.