De la Torre-DÃaz, MarÃa de Lourdes1; Cervantes-Borunda, MÃ³nica1; CabaÃ±as, MarÃa Dolores2; BenÃtez-HernÃ¡ndez, Zuliana Paola1; LÃ³pez-Ejeda, NoemÃ2; MarrodÃ¡n, MarÃa Dolores2; HernÃ¡ndez-Torres, Rosa Patricia1
There is evidence that lifestyle is different in urban or rural areas, although there are limited data on the change in diet and physical activity habits that happen in the Tarahumara indigenous people that migrate to the city.
Objective: To compare the habitual diet, physical activity and nutritional status between Tarahumara children and mestizos who live in the city of Chihuahua.
Method: A descriptive, cross-sectional and comparative study in 111 schoolchildren, (61 mestizos and 50 Tarahumaras), girls and boys between 6 and 14 years old was performed from three public schools and two indigenous schools in Chihuahua City. Self-reported questionnaires supply (24 hr recall) for two days, one weekday and one weekend, a physical activity questionnaire from EPINUT research group own creation, and anthropometric measurements were applied according to the protocol of the International Society for the Advan - cement the Kinanthropometry (ISAK).
Result: The caloric intake was similar in both groups (2036.5 ± 709 kcal/day in mestizos vs. 1938.1 ± 849 kcal/day in Tarahumara). The percentage of macronutrients did not differ significantly between groups. Cholesterol intake is higher in urban schoolchildren (318.3 ±199 mg/day vs. 226.2 ±203 mg/day; p=0.01) and also the consumption of saturated fats (29.4 ±14.7 mg/day vs.19.9 ±14.4 mg/day; p=0.01) although only the mestizos group exceed the daily recommendations for this age group. The 6% of the Tarahumara children practice school physical activity more than 4hr/wk, 54% less than 2hr/wk contrasting with the 87.1% of mestizos which practice less than 2hr/wk. Extra school physical activity was performed more than 4hr/wk by the 19.4% of mestizos vs. 8% of Tarahumara. Recreational phy sical activity performed by Tarahumara lasts less than 2hr/wk in the 26.5% of them compared with 46.8% of mestizos; 44.9% of Tarahu mara children practiced more than 4hr/wk of it. In relation to sedentary activities, 44.6% of mestizo children watch TV for 1-7 hr/wk compared to 26.1% of the Tarahu mara; the use of videogames for 1-7 hr/wk was 35.2% in mestizos and the 58.7% of Tarahumara children didn’t use any of these devices; the use of computers during 1-7 hr/wk was 50% in mestizos in contrast to 60% of Tarahumara that didn’t used them never. The week ly time using any electronic displays was 19.1hr in mestizos vs. 14.2hr in Tarahumara. The combined prevalence of overweight and obesity was 39.3% in mestizos vs. 16% in Tarahumara.
Discussion and Conclusions: Both groups studied have a similar regular diet; respect to macronutrients they differ in cholesterol and saturated fats intake which is lower in Tarahumara schoolchildren. There is more prevalence of overweight and obesity in mestizos because of increased sedentary activity per week, while recreative physical activity was higher in Tarahumara children.