Solano PÃ©rez, Luisa Andrea; Cuadrado Vives, Carmen; BeltrÃ¡n de Miguel, Beatriz
Introduction: The management of dysphagia requires a multidisciplinary approach including diet. The right adaptation of the texture of solid foods and viscosity of liquids to swallow functional capacity of the patient is key to the safety, nutritional adequacy and sensory quality of the diet
Objective: To know different terminologies for describing texture and viscosity of food used in the design of texture modified diets (TMD) and to discuss the limitations in its practical interpretation.
Methodology: Review (2010-2015) in Web of Science with search terms (Spanish and English): texture modified foods, texture modified diet, dysphagia, swallowing, thickened fluids, dementia, dysphagia in the elderly, diet modification, molecular gastronomy
Results: Scientific literature agrees on the general guidelines for the dietary approach of dysphagia but partially differs in terminologies and descriptors (and their interpretation) of texture in solid foods and viscosity of liquids, which limitsthe comparability of studies and promotes confusion in practical use. The wide variability between institutions and countries is also reflected in the guidelines and proposed TMD menus with different nutritional and organoleptic quality.
Conclusions: To review some descriptors of texture and viscosity to unify criteria and facilitate their application at home is necessary. To extend the DTM studies to sensory and hedonic aspects would be very important to improve their palatability and control environmental factors that influence in it.