J. GUAMIALAMÃ MARTÃNEZ, D. SALAZAR DUQUE, C. PORTUGAL MOREJÃ?N, D. TINOCO LÃ?PEZ
Objective: The aim of this study was to assess nutritional status of children from one to three years of age in child development centers in the parish of Calderon.
Materials and methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study in 646 children from one to three years old who regularly attend twenty child development centers in the parish of Calderón, city of Quito. 51,2% boys and 48,8% girls were evaluated. As time dimension, a study between May to September 2019 was conducted. The variables described in the study were average and standard deviation with a comparative analysis by gender. A correlational analysis was subsequently executed applying Chi Square analysis, one-way ANOVA, and two-way ANOVA for independent data, as well as the 95% CI.
Results: It was determined that there was a prevalence of chronic, global, and acute malnutrition of 35,91%, 8,98%, and 2,32% respectively, with a risk of overweight of 19,81%, overweight of 3,72% and 0,93% obesity. These data were more critical for children with 40,48% compared to 31,11% of chronic malnutrition, 10,27% compared to 7,62% of global malnutrition, 2,11% compared to 2,54% of acute malnutrition in girls, with a similar risk of overweight of 19,94% compared to 19,68% of girls, and a higher overweight and obesity in boys of 5,44% compared to 3,81% of girls. On the other hand, there is a relationship between gender and chronic malnutrition; body mass index and acute malnutrition; and an interaction between gender and overall malnutrition on weight, gender, and chronic malnutrition on height; and gender and acute malnutrition on body mass index.
Conclusion: The results of the nutritional status show that the risk of malnutrition in the population of child development centers was above the prevalence of national reports: 10,6% higher in chronic malnutrition (25,3%), 2,6 % higher in global malnutrition (6,4%) and relatively equal in acute malnutrition (2,4%). In terms of overweight and obesity 4,0% lower than the data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Survey in 2012 (8,6%) although the data refer to children under five years of age.