FranÃ§a, Ana Karla da Silva1; Italiano Peixoto, Manuella1; Correia de MacÃªdo, Ã?rika Michelle2; Couto Santos, EduÃla Maria2; Fernandes Dourado, Keila2; Mota dos Santos, ClÃ¡udia1; CÃ©sar de AraÃºjo, EdvÃ¢nia1; Carlos de Souza, Weslley2
Introduction: the quality of the diet of pregnant women is associated with complications during pregnancy, such as Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Knowing the dietary pattern of this population, by methods that evaluate the overall quality of the diet is important, since it allows the adjustment of food intake, can avoid associated disorders for mother and child and contribute to the definition of intervention strategies.
Objective: to evaluate the quality of the diet of high-risk pregnant women, including Gestational Diabetes Mellitus, and the presence of factors related to the development of the pathology.
Methodology: a cross-sectional study conducted at a hospital in the Northeast. Clinical, socioeconomic, demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric and dietary variables were collected. The quality of the diet was evaluated by HEIP-B.
Results: Gestational Diabetes mellitus was the most common pathology in pregnancy (n = 31, 70.4%), followed by hypertension (n = 27, 61.4%). The frequencies of pre and gestational maternal overweight were significant, especially in pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes mellitus (93.6% and 96.7%, respectively). No patient consumed poor diet and the proportion of good quality diet and needing improvement was similar. But it was observed that the majority of diabetic pregnant women consume a good quality diet (p = 0.046).
Discussion: Percentages of hypertension and overweight may have led to the development of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus by pregnant women, as they are risk factors for the disease. The quality of the diet accompanies the worrying trend shown by other studies. The higher consumption of good quality diet by pregnant diabetics is encouraging, considering the importance of diet in the treatment of pathology
Conclusion: Diabetic pregnant women seem to worry about eating and, for the most part, consume good quality diet. But HEIP-B showed a high percentage of pregnant women who were diets in need of improvement and did not follow a foodoriented plan. Not only the quality of the diet, but also the expressive frequencies of hypertension and overweight are worrisome and speak in favor of the high prevalence of observed Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. These results reinforce the need to improve the quality of food for this public, making it necessary to encourage healthy eating practices, as well as prenatal care to diagnose pathologies and their early intervention.