Bimbela Serrano, MarÃaTeresa1; Bimbela Serrano, Fernando2; BernuÃ©s VÃ¡zquez, Luis2
Introduction: The modification of the dietetic habits and of the physical activity in the obese patient is essential for the achievement and maintenance of the results in the long term. Hence, knowing and detecting the variation in the daily life habits after the obesity treatment has been completed may be useful for the professionals working in the field of Primary Care Nursing.
Hypothesis: There exists an alteration in the hygienic-dietetic habits of obese adult patients undergoing a dietetic therapeutic programme in a Primary Care Nursing Practice.
Objectives: To compare the life habits of a group of patients before and after finishing a dietetic programme for losing weight established in a Primary Care Nursing Practice. The goal of the programme is to stimulate the patient in maintaining the achievements and to focus the patient education on the correction of errors.
Methodology: Prospective study of cuasi-experimental intervention, carried out from January of 2012 through December of 2013 with a group of patients from the Primary Care Nursing Practice of a rural Health Center in the province of Teruel (Spain). The pilot project was composed of 50 patients (26 men and 24 women) with basic educational background, ages between 35 and 65, average age 54.84 (± 8.04 SD) and average BMI of 33.52 kg/m2 (±3,43 SD). A customized treatment was elaborated for each patient, consisting of: hypocaloric diet, exercise and educational sessions. The patients were evaluated by means of the Obesity test included in the Clinical Actuation Guide in Primary Care Nursing from the Generalitat Valenciana (Corbacho, Godes, Adelina et al.) and a Questionaire on Weekly Consumption Frequency. The statistical analysis of the data has been done using the SPSS 15 software.
Main Results: Significant modifications in the alimentary habits have been observed, more related to the amounts of the rations rather than to the frequency of consumption. Other factors such as “self-cooking”, “eating out”, or “going to work on foot” were not significantly varied. Notwithstanding, factors such as “fixed schedule for meals” or “frequent practice of physical activity”, which previously had had negative replies from 43.59% (17 people) of the selected sample of patients, were significantly modified and no negative replies were obtained from the patients after the termination of the treatment. In addition, the “number of daily meals < 3” and “eating between hours” factors became significantly decreased by 33 % and 13 % respectively since the startup of the project.
Conclusions: There is a modification of the hygienic and dietetic habits of the obese patients undergoing a dietetic therapeutic programme in a Primary Care Nursing Practice. Despite the great difficulty inherent to modifying the acquired habits, knowing the variation in daily life habits after the obesity treatments, helps better orienting the work of Primary Care Nursing professionals in this field.