Adriana da Silva, ThaÃs1; Silveira, Nathalia Santiago da Mota2; GalvÃ£o Rodrigues, Isa1; Pinho, ClÃ¡udia Porto Sabino1
Introduction: Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and disability in both sexes, in Brazil and in the world. The nutritional disturbances observed in these patients may influence morbidity and mortality rates.
Objectives: To describe the nutritional status of hospitalized patients with heart disease and the temporal trends observed in 7 years of evaluation and, secondarily, to analyze the nutritional status according to baseline heart disease.
Methods: A retrospective study was carried out, and data were collected on the admission of cardiac patients hospitalized in a university hospital in the Brazilian Northeast in the period between 2011-2017. The sample consisted of patients of both genders aged> 18 years. Demographic variables (sex, age), clinical (admission diagnosis, comorbidities) and anthropometric variables (body mass index) were considered.
Results: The sample consisted of 1785 patients, with a median age of 60 (IQ: 50-69) years being 50.6% of patients with coronary artery disease. It was verified that 41.2% (IC95%: 39.0-43.6) of the population was overweight and 15.5% (95% CI: 13.9-17.3) malnutrition. There was no temporal variation in the prevalence of overweight and malnutrition in the 7-year period studied (p = 0.668). The prevalence of overweight was 49.5% in the coronary arteries, 29.8% in the valvopathies and 37.1% in the myocardiopathy. Malnutrition was identified in about 20% in myocardiopatas and valvopas and in 11.5% of coronary heart disease patients (p <0.001).
Conclusions: These results demonstrate maintenance of the nutritional profile in the patients with cardiopathy over the 7 years of the study. The malnutrition found was higher in the myocardiopatas and valvopas, while the excess weight was greater in the coronary patients.